SOUTHWESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF the BAHIA – UESB Department of Geography – DG Summary of the Book of In Elias de Castro, the Problem of Escala. For: Jose Carlos de Oliveira Ribeiro, 2008 Person who orientates: Mrio Rubem Santana. Of use so as the proper scale one meets of such incorporation to the imaginary vocabulary and the geographic one that any quarrel its respect seems unprovided of direction, or utility. As basic mathematical resource of the cartography the scale is, and it always was, a fraction that the relation indicates enters the measures of the Real and those of its graphical representation. The geographic boarding of the Real faces the basic problem of the size, that varies of the local space to the planetarium. This variation of sizes and problems is not prerogative of geography. The Greeks already affirmed that, how much the so great change, the things had moved: the architecture, the physics, biology, the geomorfologia, geology, beyond others you discipline, face this same situation.

Recently, the discoveries of microphysics and the microbiology had placed in evidence that in the relation between phenomenon and size if laws of a size do not transfer to another one without problems, and that is valid for any it disciplines. Pra the author the gegrafo has difficulty in if to make to understand when it uses the great terms and small scales to assign surfaces of inverse size these qualitative ones. The place is mentioned to it as great scale and to the world as small scale is to use the fraction as descriptive base and analytical, when it is only one instrument. The scale as question introduces the necessity of coherence between perceived and the conceived one, therefore each scale if makes the field of the reference in which the relevancy of a phenomenon exists. The central problem in this perspective is the requirement in such a way of a level of abstraction as of some form of mensurao, inherent to the representation of the phenomena.