Summary

SOUTHWESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF the BAHIA – UESB Department of Geography – DG Summary of the Book of In Elias de Castro, the Problem of Escala. For: Jose Carlos de Oliveira Ribeiro, 2008 Person who orientates: Mrio Rubem Santana. Of use so as the proper scale one meets of such incorporation to the imaginary vocabulary and the geographic one that any quarrel its respect seems unprovided of direction, or utility. As basic mathematical resource of the cartography the scale is, and it always was, a fraction that the relation indicates enters the measures of the Real and those of its graphical representation. The geographic boarding of the Real faces the basic problem of the size, that varies of the local space to the planetarium. This variation of sizes and problems is not prerogative of geography. The Greeks already affirmed that, how much the so great change, the things had moved: the architecture, the physics, biology, the geomorfologia, geology, beyond others you discipline, face this same situation.

Recently, the discoveries of microphysics and the microbiology had placed in evidence that in the relation between phenomenon and size if laws of a size do not transfer to another one without problems, and that is valid for any it disciplines. Pra the author the gegrafo has difficulty in if to make to understand when it uses the great terms and small scales to assign surfaces of inverse size these qualitative ones. The place is mentioned to it as great scale and to the world as small scale is to use the fraction as descriptive base and analytical, when it is only one instrument. The scale as question introduces the necessity of coherence between perceived and the conceived one, therefore each scale if makes the field of the reference in which the relevancy of a phenomenon exists. The central problem in this perspective is the requirement in such a way of a level of abstraction as of some form of mensurao, inherent to the representation of the phenomena.

Brazilian Economy

These definitions are if losing throughout the years with the expansion of the capital. This fact if must, mainly, due to conception created for the government of that the Amaznia would be the rescuer of the Brazilian economy, and therefore it created a planning of immediate occupation, with politics that caused significant modifications for a economic reorganization in the urban mesh of the Amaznia. This desenvolvimentista politics brought for the Paraense Southeast a great number of on companies to the farming one, the industrial ore extration, lumber and activities. If you have additional questions, you may want to visit CEO Caruso Affiliated. The attractive one for such companies was, mainly, to the abundance and raw material availability and cheap man power, being that, this last one was originated by the migratory flow for the region from the governmental politics that aimed at the settling process. Thus, some villages and cities had suffered a sudden growth, that in the agreement of Becker (2001), this urban growth of the nuclei also did not occur of linear form, due to the migratory process that did not represent necessarily, the transistion only in direction the proletarizao in the cities. In other words, migrantes were not only people who came running away from the social problems in its places of origin, some came with objective to invest and to accumulate capital, either through the installation of on activities the exploration of the land, or same of its speculation. In this manner, a new border was created, where the State adopted some mechanisms of population attraction, making possible an intense migratory flow for the Amaznia. Parallel to population mobility, was also attended, the great entrance of capitals, through financial companies and institutions that had passed if to appropriate of enormous extensions of lands. Therefore, the applied public politics in the Paraense Southeast had promoted a great overturn, provoking contradictions and conflicts that if incited to each entrance of new social actors, who more had in the region the diversified interests.

Industrial Development

But what it goes to mark the industrial development in Brazil is the period of great planning and plans. Jucelino Kubistichek elaborating next to its economic team the first plan of goals, 1956 to the 1961. It is proven through messages sent to the national congress, the following speech, how much the national fishing activity, of the president of the republic: She is if creating, slow more firmly, one fishing mentality in Brazil. Governmental initiatives of assistencial and educative character, and also private enterprises of spread, modify of year for year, the statistical picture of this industry, designating constant increases in the fished production of, that it more than reached two hundred a thousand tons in 1955 (Juscelino Kubitschek, April of 1955) Has the increment in the fishing production with passing of the years, an uninterrupted, however without dynamism and disarrenged what had been coordinated increment. Brazil possua one fishes predominantly artisan, with rudimentary techniques and been slow in relation to many countries, it fishes of which did not allow great advances of the productive forces and that it are to little and of slow form being incorporificadas. It had great barriers to the capital, did not have who fomented this activity of relatively important importance. In 1961, in the Jnio government Pictures, the Advice of Development of Pesca is created, for the decree n. 50872, having as main objectives: to elaborate the plurienal plan of fishes, to elaborate also programs for the technician formation and professionals in the area of fish, to promote the social assistance to the workers of fish, to give fiscal exemption to the industries for the construction of boats of fishes and to extend the market of consumption of the great demographic centers and cities of the interior. It had changes in the speech, changes these that had finished for creating, in 1962, for the delegated law n.

Accumulation Process

The accumulation process gains new rhythm and localization of the activities most income-producing if becomes more selective. A region is, in the truth, lcus of determined functions of the total society at a given moment. But, for the fact of that, in the past, the same phenomenon if produced, preceding the space divisions of the work had created, in the respective area, diverse fixed instruments of work ace orbits of the productive process, which if comes to join new necessary instruments of work to the activities new and renewed current. The region if would define, thus, as the result of on possibilities to a certain presence, in it, of fixed capitals exerting determined paper or determined functions techniques and of the conditions of its economic functioning, given for the net of relations above indicated. One can be said that it has a true dialectic between both these concrete factors, influencing and modifying the other. Thus, the regional one would be given accurately by forms, considered, however, as forms techniques, except if already they do not function, never leave of being carrying of a content, that is, of a on reception system to the internal logic of firms or institutions and that resistncias to the logic amplest, of general, national nature.

The penetration, in the field, of the forms most modern of the capitalism leads the two complementary results. Of a side, new geographic objects if create, establishing a new structure technique, of another one, the proper structure of the dumb space. Assignments such as urban region or agricultural zone gain a new content. In an area where the organic composition of the capital is raised, where amount and quality of the roads favor the circulation and the exchanges, where the proximity of a great city and the productive and space specialization lead the complementation, the field if it industrializes, becomes object of advanced relation of capital, clearly distinct of that they have place in the traditional agricultural regions in such a way, how much in that, being modern, are distanciadas of the developed urban areas more. What it would distinguish the urban region and the agricultural region will not be more the functional espacializao, but the amount, the density and the multidimension of the relations kept on the respective space. The opposition notion city-field becomes, in this manner, change, to give to place to the complementaridade notion and its exercise on a portion of the space.

Without a doubt, the total space of a country is solidary, therefore to complement. Here, however, one is about cooperation to an inferior scale, that is, to the scale of the immediate process of the production and/or consumption.